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Bone Regeneration Techniques

Human tissues have little capacity for regeneration and only some tissues can do so, among them is bone tissue. Bone Regeneration is the medical-surgical treatment that leads to obtaining the amount of bone in the jaws that is needed for the placement of Dental Implants. A Specialist in Maxillofacial Surgery is the one who performs this procedure using different techniques.

What is Bone Regeneration?

Some species such as lizards, when they lose a limb such as their tail, can spontaneously regenerate it as the days go by. Human tissues have little capacity for regeneration and only a few tissues can do so, among them is the woven bone. If a fracture occurs, the human organism has the capacity, in an average term between six and twelve weeks, to regenerate the fractured bone tissue replacing it with fabric of the same quality as the original fabric. This quality has been taken advantage of by science to be able to induce bone regeneration of the jawswhen bone volume has been lost due to inflammatory, tumor or traumatic diseases.

It must be taken into account that the jaws are the only bones in the body that have teeth and they are connected to a septic environment such as the oral cavity. This means that the jaws have certain peculiarities that differentiate them from the other bones of the body.

The above leads to defining the Bone regenaration as the medical-surgical treatment leading to obtaining the amount of bone in the jaws necessary to give continuity and volume to the jaws and allow the replacement of lost teeth with Dental implants. For this purpose, bank bone grafts (human or animal), grafts taken from the same patient (they are the most predictable) and the use of advanced techniques such as bone regeneration through osteogenic distraction and the use of growth factors taken from various tissues are used. of the same patient. The choice of which technique should be used depends on each particular case.

There is the term Guided Bone Regeneration, GBRsuch as the surgical technique aimed at induce bone regenerationusing membranes made of different materials that promote the growth of bone cells and preventing the affected area from being invaded by cells other than bone cells, such as cells that produce fibrous tissue, which lack the physical characteristics that allow implants to be placed in the bones. places where teeth have been lost.

The term Osteogenesis It is used to indicate the formation of bone tissue from cells of the same person. This technique is the one that offers the best results, however, it means taking bone from another part of the body. Generally, the jaw is used in the most posterior area, but bone can also be obtained from the hip or fibula. The other method that has been used is grafting bone matrices derived from bone, without cells or proteins, from other humans or animals such as bovines or pigs. This process is called Osteoinduction.

Why are cells or proteins from other individuals not used in Osteoinduction?

No cells or proteins are used because they would trigger the defense mechanisms that the body has to reject tissues that are not its own. When a person receives tissues from a human or animal donor that contain proteins, the only way to accept this tissue is by inhibiting the body’s defense response with medications.

Statistically, The percentage of the Colombian population that requires restoration of lost teeth, over 40 years of age, can reach 80%. This value may vary from one country to another, but high population percentages will always be found. Among the causes for people to lose their teeth are Cavities, the inflammatory disease that affects the supporting tissues of the teeth, gum and bone (Periodontal Disease), Cysts and Tumors, among others.

How long does it take for bone to regenerate?

Losing bone volume in the jaws due to dental or gum inflammatory processes is relatively rapid, it can take only a few days or weeks, however, It takes four to six months for the bone to regenerate.

Are there other techniques to induce Bone Regeneration?

Yes, there are others techniques to induce bone regeneration, among them is Osteogenic Distractionconsisting of surgically induce a Bone Fracture and from there, controllably stretch the bone segments so that new bone is created at the “stretch” site. This technique, described by the Russian orthopedic doctor Gavriil Ilizarov in the 1950s, has achieved regenerations of long bones such as the femur or humerus of more than 15 cm. and in the maxillary bone ridges of more than 10 mm. (Fig. 1) This technique requires the placement of orthopedic devices that guide the regeneration of the bone to be treated (Fig. 2)

Can stem cells be used in this type of treatment?

Yes, they have been used experimental level with good resultsbut they have not yet become popular due to the high costs that technique it implies. Most likely the use of stem cells and proteins that induce Tissue Regeneration is the near future in the treatment of these injuries.

What other types of treatments are used?

There are Self-Irrigated Bone Grafts, this means that along with the grafted bone, arteries and veins are included that guarantee that there is a good blood supply to the graft. This technique is reserve for cases of extensive lesions caused by tumors or after severe trauma to the jaws.

How is the appropriate technique selected for patients?

He Careful study of each case will give the Surgeon the guidelines to follow in planning each particular case.. Not all cases are the same and the degree of complexity is different.