Gastritis: treatment and prevention
It is an inflammation of the gastric mucosa caused by various disorders, in many cases they are asymptomatic so it is necessary to perform an Endoscopy.
Gastritis is an inflammation of the gastric mucosa caused by a bacterial infection. Helicobacter Pylori, drugs such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, stress or autoimmune diseases.
This pathology is classified as Erosive and Non-Erosive depending on the severity of the mucosal lesion and the location.. Likewise, it can also be classified as Acute or Chronic according to the type of inflammatory cells:
- Acute gastritis: It is characterized by the infiltration of immune cells called polymorphonuclear cells, these contain enzymes that are released in the mucosa of the lower tract of the digestive tract.
- Chronic gastritis: In this case, a degree of atrophy is noted in the function of the mucosa, where the lower tract and the body of the stomach
Clinical picture and risk factors
In general, Gastritis does not cause symptoms, but when they occur they vary depending on the cause.some of them are the following:
- Pain or discomfort
- Nausea or Vomiting
- Dyspepsia (Feeling of Indigestion)
It is important to mention that when intermittent Nausea and Vomiting occur, they are the result of a more serious disease, such as Erosive Gastritis and radiation. In the case of the feeling of Dyspepsia, it may be related to Acute Gastritis derived from Stress.
There are various risk factors that cause this pathology.One of the most frequent is the presence of the Helicobacter Pylori bacteria, the consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), another factor is drinking alcohol and bile reflux.
Diagnosis and treatment
Generally, when a patient comes to the clinic due to discomfort, nausea, or pain in the upper abdomen, no tests are needed; however, If the doctor has doubts about the diagnosis or the symptoms do not disappear with treatment, he or she can perform an upper endoscopy.In this study, an endoscope is used, which is a flexible viewing tube, which will be used to examine the stomach and part of the small intestine. In some cases the doctor performs a biopsy of the gastric mucosa.
To treat the patient, a change in diet and eating habits is suggested, some recommendations are the following:
- Take 5 or 6 daily doses in small quantities to improve digestion
- Avoid coffee, tea, alcohol, spicy foods, carbonated drinks and fatty foods
- Avoid very hot and very cold foods
- Use the steam or oven technique to avoid burning or excessively toasting the food.
- Avoid the consumption of citrus fruits and milk
- Eat white meats such as chicken, turkey and rabbit. In the case of fish, they should be white, shellfish such as shrimp and prawns are low in fat, and provide good digestion.
- Potato and rice are a good option as a source of carbohydrates; in the case of legumes, they should be in small quantities and crushed without the skin.
Symptoms of Gastritis They can be relieved with drugs that neutralize or reduce the production of gastric acidas well as the interruption of treatment with those drugs that cause the symptoms.
Drugs for Gastritis are administered depending on the symptoms. When symptoms are mild, it is sufficient to take antacids that can be purchased without a prescription.
There are other drugs that reduce acid production, such as Histamine blockers, which are more effective, while Proton Pump inhibitors are administered when Gastritis is associated with Bleeding.
In the case of Gastritis caused by the bacteria Helicobacter Pylori, antibiotics are prescribed. If it is Erosive Gastritis, the patient should avoid taking drugs that irritate the gastric mucosa and in this case histamine blocking medications are usually recommended to protect the mucosa.
When Acute Gastritis is caused by Stress, the patient will recover when the disease, injury or bleeding is controlled. It is known that 2% of people who suffer hemorrhages are derived from this type of Gastritis..
Gastritis that is not treated correctly can become complicated and present Hemorrhages, Ulcers or Narrowing of the Stomach Outlet.
It is known that Acute Stress Gastritis can end in Hemorrhage that tends to evolve more slowly, so the person does not present symptoms or notice blackish stools due to the digested blood. When the hemorrhage progresses rapidly, the person may vomit blood and may cause anemia, fatigue, weakness and lightheadedness.
How to prevent it?
For prevent any type of Gastritisit is necessary that the patient attend to the following recommendations:
- Take care of the hygiene and quality of food
- Avoid consuming irritants such as coffee, preservatives, fried foods
- Avoid smoking and alcohol consumption
- Do not self-medicate, avoid aspirin or anti-inflammatories
- Rest at least 8 hours a day and avoid Stress
- Do physical activity or walk for at least 20 minutes a day
- Eat well, chew properly, eat sitting down and without rushing
- Do not drink plenty of liquids with meals
- Do not overeat
- Avoid very hot or very cold foods
- Avoid lying down after eating